Correct execution of the abstract

Formatting of the abstract

The abstract is a summary of the content of a book or several books, scientific facts or the results of the study of scientific research on a given topic, for its writing requires an in-depth study of the topic. Students often write essays to improve their grades, to receive credit or certification. In order to get the desired result of the work done it is necessary not only to study the material well, but also competently write and execute the abstract project. Often students leave very little time to study the requirements for the design of the essay and directly its registration. As a result, the essay is handed over improperly designed, in unreadable form, and as a consequence does not bring the expected assessment or credit. Therefore, when writing an essay is better at the initial stage to study what are the requirements for registration of such works in your university or use the service online paper proofreader.

If there are no special requirements, you should pay attention to the existing standards. It usually takes more than one day to study and comprehend the standards, and it turns out to be not such a simple task to execute correctly at once, from the first time.

When drawing up an abstract, it is important to choose one design scheme and stick to it throughout the document. That is, decide what fields you will have, the size of paragraphs, indents and intervals, the font for the main text and headings (italics or not, bold or plain), for pictures and tables. Markers of the same level should coincide, figures and tables should necessarily be signed and numbered.

Today's educational standards allow the design of the abstract both manually and on the computer. The most relevant is the design of an abstract on a computer. Therefore, let's dwell in more detail on the principles and rules of drawing up a paper in Microsoft Word, taking into account the requirements.

Editing begins with page layout

The abstract is drawn up on sheets of A4 format. The orientation of the sheet for the main text of the abstract is chosen portrait, and only for large tables and figures - album. Sheets with landscape orientation are drawn as an appendix at the end of the essay. Then the margins of the text work are exposed. As a rule, the left margin is the largest - 3 cm, top, bottom and right - 2 cm. In the text is also required to set the hyphenation, this is done automatically.

Then are placed page numbers. In the abstract the first page is the title page, the second - the content. On the first sheet numbering is not put, it begins with the second sheet. Usually page numbers are placed at the bottom of the sheet.

To format the text of the essay

Select the whole text of your essay and give it general parameters. The text of the abstract is usually designed font "Times New Roman". The height of a kegel is usually taken in the value of 12pt or 14pt. The shape of the usual. After that, set the parameters in the Font dialog box. In the dialog box "Paragraph" is assigned the following parameters abstract: alignment - by width, the indentation on the left and right - 0 cm, for the entire document except for text containing markers or numbering. For simple marked or numbered text set the indent on the left - 1.25 cm. Paragraph (first line) - 1,25 cm. Line spacing is often taken single or single and a half. Kegel font and line spacing is adopted depending on the volume of text. If the volume of abstract volume is small (10-15 pages) take kegel 14pts, spacing 1.5, with 20-30 pages of text - kegel 12pts, single spacing.

Formalize the title titles of the essay

Title titles: Table of Contents, Introduction, Conclusion, List of References are in capital lower case letters. These headings are not numbered. Now select all titles and give them general parameters: alignment - center, interval before - 12pts, after - 6pts, bold type.

Figures are placed in the center of the page. The title and numbering of the figure is placed directly under the figure itself, aligned in the center. In the beginning of the title the word "Figure" in full or in abbreviated form and its number in Arabic numerals is placed, then the name of the figure through a hyphen is indicated. There is no dot at the end of the title. For example, Figure 1 - Types of karst or Figure 1 - Farm. All figures in the abstract should be described in the text. References to this or that figure in the text are indicated in round brackets, the word figure is written in abbreviated form, for example (Fig.1). If the abstract is graphs, diagrams, charts, they are signed as a figure, and give the appropriate numbering: Fig.1 - Graph..., or Fig.2 - Diagram.